Erster Commit

This commit is contained in:
Daniel Spittank 2022-04-29 09:49:48 +02:00
commit edf112498e
9 changed files with 760 additions and 0 deletions

.drone.yml Normal file
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kind: pipeline
type: docker
name: build
- name: build
- name: site
path: /site
# - pip install -U -r ./requirements.txt
- mkdocs build
- cp -r site/ /site
- chmod -R 700 /site
- name: deploy
image: drillster/drone-rsync
- name: site
path: /site
hosts: [ "" ]
port: 6666
delete: true
recursive: true
from_secret: deploy_ssh_user
from_secret: deploy_ssh_key
source: /site/
target: htdocs
- name: site
temp: {}
- DockerCredsGithub
kind: signature
hmac: fb68537c928bfa1a0fcb81f41e83ce9dea4888075619f8833d029c9086b7903e

.gitignore vendored Normal file
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# Vault
# Keys
# MkDocs
# ---> Ansible
# ---> Terraform
# Local .terraform directories
# .tfstate files
# Crash log files
# Exclude all .tfvars files, which are likely to contain sentitive data, such as
# password, private keys, and other secrets. These should not be part of version
# control as they are data points which are potentially sensitive and subject
# to change depending on the environment.
# Ignore override files as they are usually used to override resources locally and so
# are not checked in
# Include override files you do wish to add to version control using negated pattern
# !
# Include tfplan files to ignore the plan output of command: terraform plan -out=tfplan
# example: *tfplan*
# Ignore CLI configuration files
# ---> Vim
# Swap
!*.svg # comment out if you don't need vector files
# Session
# Temporary
# Auto-generated tag files
# Persistent undo
# ---> macOS
# General
# Icon must end with two \r
# Thumbnails
# Files that might appear in the root of a volume
# Directories potentially created on remote AFP share
Network Trash Folder
Temporary Items
# ---> Windows
# Windows thumbnail cache files
# Dump file
# Folder config file
# Recycle Bin used on file shares
# Windows Installer files
# Windows shortcuts

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Version 3, 19 November 2007
Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <>
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
The GNU Affero General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works, specifically designed to ensure cooperation with the community in the case of network server software.
The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, our General Public Licenses are intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs, and that you know you can do these things.
Developers that use our General Public Licenses protect your rights with two steps: (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.
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The GNU Affero General Public License is designed specifically to ensure that, in such cases, the modified source code becomes available to the community. It requires the operator of a network server to provide the source code of the modified version running there to the users of that server. Therefore, public use of a modified version, on a publicly accessible server, gives the public access to the source code of the modified version.
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Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users interacting with it remotely through a computer network (if your version supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary means of facilitating copying of software. This Corresponding Source shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3 of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the following paragraph.
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How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License along with this program. If not, see <>.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If your software can interact with users remotely through a computer network, you should also make sure that it provides a way for users to get its source. For example, if your program is a web application, its interface could display a "Source" link that leads users to an archive of the code. There are many ways you could offer source, and different solutions will be better for different programs; see section 13 for the specific requirements.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU AGPL, see <>.

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# Seriennummer 42
Inhalt der Webseite

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# Übersicht Guides
[Einrichtung eines Proxmox-HA-Clusters](proxmox)

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# Proxmox-Cluster mit Ceph
## Basissetup
1. Proxmox installieren (mit ZFS)
2. Proxmox-Root verschlüsseln [^1]
1. System von einem externen Medium mit ZFS-Support starten (z.B. Ubuntu oder im Proxmox-Installer ++ctrl+alt+f3++ drücken, das ist jedoch sehr unkomfortabel).
2. In der Shell folgende Schritte ausführen:
``` bash
# Aktuellen Root-Pool importieren
zpool import -f rpool
# Einen Snapshot erstellen
zfs snapshot -r rpool/ROOT@copy
# Ein temporäres Dateisystem aus dem Snapshot erzeugen
zfs send -R rpool/ROOT@copy | zfs receive rpool/copyroot
# Das alte Dateisystem löschen
zfs destroy -r rpool/ROOT
# Ein neues Dateisystem mit aktivierter Verschlüsselung erstellen
zfs create -o encryption=on -o keyformat=passphrase rpool/ROOT
# Die Dateien vom temporären in das neue Dateisystem kopieren
zfs send -R rpool/copyroot/pve-1@copy | zfs receive\
-o encryption=on rpool/ROOT/pve-1
# Den Mountpoint des neuen Dateisystems setzen
# Falls dies hängt, das System booten, im initramfs den Pool
# importieren und dort den Mountpoint setzen. Danach weiter
# wie beschrieben.
zfs set mountpoint=/ rpool/ROOT/pve-1
# Prüfen, dass alles verschlüsselt ist
zfs get encryption
# Das temporäre Dateisystem löschen
zfs destroy -r rpool/copyroot/pve-1@copy
zfs destroy -r rpool/copyroot
# Den Pool wieder exportieren
zpool export rpool
3. System neustarten
3. System updaten
1. Packagelists anpassen
``` bash
# No-Subscription Repo anlegen
echo "deb\
bullseye pve-no-subscription" >\
# Enterprise-Repo löschen
rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-enterprise.list
2. Updaten
``` bash
apt update
apt full-upgrade
4. SSH einrichten
1. SSH-Keys hinterlegen (```/root/.ssh/authorized_keys```)
2. SSHD-Konfiguration anpassen (```/etc/ssh/sshd_config```)
``` bash
# Port ändern (Port 22 wird weiterhin benötigt für die
# Clusterkommunikation, kann aber später mit Firewallregeln
# auf die betroffenen Hosts beschränkt werden.
Port 1412
Port 22
# Root-Login nur mit Key
PermitRootLogin prohibit-password
# Passwort-Login verbieten
PasswordAuthentication no
# TCP-Forwarding (Tunnel) erlauben
AllowTcpForwarding yes
# X11-Weiterleitung verbieten
X11Forwarding no
5. Remote-Unlock aktivieren
1. dropbear-initramfs installieren (``` apt install dropbear-initramfs```)
2. initramfs mit fester IP ausstatten (```/etc/initramfs-tools/initramfs.conf```)
``` bash
2. dropbear konfigurieren (```/etc/dropbear-initramfs/config```)
``` bash
3. Keys für dropbear hinterlegen
``` bash
# Autorisierte Schlüssel hinterlegen
cp /root/.ssh/authorized_keys /etc/dropbear-initramfs
# Hostkeys konvertieren
rm /etc/dropbear-initramfs/*_key
cd /etc/ssh
for file in ssh_host_*_key; do
echo Konvertiere $file
cp $file /tmp/$file
ssh-keygen -m PEM -p -f /tmp/$file
dropbearconvert openssh dropbear /tmp/$file /tmp/$newfile
mv /tmp/$newfile /etc/dropbear-initramfs/
rm /tmp/$file
# Ramdisk updaten
update-initramfs -u
6. Datenset verschlüsseln
!!! info
Die Datenpartition wird mit einem Key verschlüsselt, der im Dateisystem des Servers liegt. Dieser ist durch die Verschlüsselung des Root-Sets geschützt, wenn der Server ausgeschaltet ist, ist jedoch prinzipiell lesbar, wenn der Server läuft.
Die Rechte des Keyfiles sind konservativ gesetzt (Zugriff nur für root) dennoch bleibt dies eine Abwägung zwischen Komfort und Sicherheit.
Besser wäre eine spezifische Key-Partition, die nach dem Booten wieder gesperrt würde. Dies ist bei Nutzung von Ceph jedoch ohnehin nicht möglich, da die Keys für Ceph im Root-Dateisystem der Monitore liegen und verfügbar sein müssen.
!!! tip
Optional: Insbesondere bei Clustereinrichtung sollte in Proxmox der Storage (local-zfs) gelöscht und nach der Verschlüsselung ein passender neuer angelegt werden, der der Storage-ID im Cluster entspricht.
``` bash
# Key generieren
dd if=/dev/urandom of=/root/local.key bs=32 count=1
chmod 600 /root/local.key
# Datenset löschen
zfs destroy -r rpool/data
# Neues, verschlüsseltes Datenset anlegen
zfs create -o encryption=on -o keyformat=raw \
-o keylocation=file:///root/local.key rpool/data
# Dienst zum Unlock beim Systemstart anlegen
cat > /etc/systemd/system/zfs-load-key.service <<EOF
Description=Load encryption keys
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/zfs load-key -a
# Dienst aktivieren
systemctl enable zfs-load-key.service
!!! warning
Anschließend den Key (```/root/local.key```) sichern!
7. Netzwerkkonfiguration vornehmen
1. Alle Schnittstellen auf MTU 9000 einstellen (unter Advanced)
2. Mindestens ein eigenes Netz für den Cluster und Ceph erstellen (vorzugsweise 10G)
3. Bridge anlegen für VLANs für die VMs anlegen (vmbr1, vorzugsweise 10G)
4. IPs passend festlegen
5. Konnektivität prüfen
## Clusterkonfiguration
1. Einrichtung des Clusters auf einer der Nodes über die GUI. Der Link sollte auf das schnelle Netz zeigen.
2. Die anderen Nodes über die GUI joinen.
3. Bei komplexeren Setups mit Failover etc. bietet es sich an, die Adressen der Hosts in den Hosts-Datei zu spezifizieren und die ```/etc/corosync/corosync.conf``` manuell anzupassen. Siehe [Seperate Cluster Network]( im Proxmox-Wiki.
!!! warning
Bei jeder Änderung der ```/etc/corosync/corosync.conf``` *muss* die ```config_version``` erhöht werden, damit die Datei im Cluster aktiv wird!
4. Das Migration-Netzwerk sollte vom Cluster-Netzwerk getrenn sein und muss dann manuell festgelegt werden. Dies erfolgt in der ```/etc/pve/datacenter.cfg```:
``` json
migration: secure,network=
## Ceph-Einrichtung
### Grundeinrichtung
1. Ceph auf dem ersten Node in der GUI installieren (Advanced aktivieren), Netzwerke passend auswählen, Replicas passend einstellen.
2. Ceph auf den anderen Nodes in der GUI installieren (Adcanced aktivieren).
3. Monitore, Manager und Metadata-Server auf den weiteren Nodes hinzufügen.
4. OSDs auf allen Nodes hinzufügen, dabei für HDD evtl. WAL+DB auf SSD auslagern sowie Encryption aktivieren.
!!! tip
Wenn WAL+DB auf einer Partition angelegt werden soll, muss zunächst das LVM vorbereitet werden, dazu:
1. Mit fdisk Partition anlegen (Typ 30)
2. LVM anlegen
``` bash
# Physival Volume erstellen
pvcreate /dev/sdX4
# Volumegroup erstellen
vgcreate ceph-db-0 /dev/sdX4
### Pools einrichten
1. Wenn SSDs und HDDs zum Einsatz kommen, können unterschiedliche Crush-Regeln angelegt werden, um Pools für schnellen und langsamen Speicher zu erstellen:
``` bash
ceph osd crush rule create-replicated replicated_hdd default host hdd
ceph osd crush rule create-replicated replicated_ssd default host ssd
2. Pools anlegen und dabei die Crush-Regeln und die Redundanz (Replicas = Original + Anzahl Kopien) passend auswählen.
### VM-Disks anlegen
Die Pools können direkt als Storage genutzt werden. Wichtig ist, dass als Dateisystem XFS verwendet wird. Dies ist etwas schneller und deutlich stabiler in den Transferraten als ext4. Außerdem kann man zur Leistungssteigerung den Writeback-Cache aktivieren und den IO-Thread aktivieren (dazu als SCSI-Controller in der VM _Virtio SCSI single_ auswählen.
### CephFS nutzen
Wenn man CephFS nutzt, können die angelegten Pools entsprechenden Crush-Regeln zugewiesen werden. Der Metadata-Pool sollte immer auf SSDs liegen!
1. Zugangsdaten auf dem Cluster anlegen
``` bash
# ceph fs authorize <cephfs-name> client.<nutzername>
# <verzeichnis> <berechtigung> ... <verzeichnis> <berechtigung>
ceph fs authorize cephfs client.daniel / rw
2. Den angezeigten Key in eine Datei auf dem Client kopieren
3. Vom Client aus mounten
``` bash
mount.ceph <monitor-ip>:/ /mnt -o name=daniel,secretfile=ceph.key
4. Oder in der /etc/fstab eintragen:
<mon1_ip>,<mon2_ip>,<mon3_ip>:/ /mnt/cephfs/ ceph name=<username>,secretfile=<keyfile>,noatime,_netdev 0 0
Sehr viele weitere Einstellungen und sehr differenzierte Berechtigungen sind möglich. Siehe [Client-Auth](
### VM-Disk vs. gemountetes CephFS
Man kann statt eine VM-Disk anzulegen auch ein CephFS direkt mounten. Dies hat verschiedene Vor- und Nachteile.
| Eigenschaft | Disk | Mount |
| ---------------------------------------------- | --------------------------------- | --------------------------------- |
| einfachere Einrichtung | :material-check-circle:{ .green } | :material-close-circle:{ .red } |
| Backup in Proxmox möglich | :material-check-circle:{ .green } | :material-close-circle:{ .red } |
| als Systemlaufwerk nutzbar | :material-check-circle:{ .green } | :material-close-circle:{ .red } |
| Nutzung von verschiedenen Clients gleichzeitig | :material-close-circle:{ .red } | :material-check-circle:{ .green } |
| "unbegrenztes" Wachstum | :material-close-circle:{ .red } | :material-check-circle:{ .green } |
| geringfügig höhere Geschwindigkeit | :material-close-circle:{ .red } | :material-check-circle:{ .green } |
## Fußnoten
[^1]: Native ZFS-Verschlüsselung mit Proxmox: [Quelle](

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